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A Survey of Medieval (and earlier) Freestanding Crosses in Norfolk
Appendix Three: Wayside Crosses & the Walsingham Way
Whilst researching into the crosses of Norfolk, one subject - not unexpectedly - emerged as a fairly continuous thread: that of pilgrimage. Just how many people ever undertook a pilgrimage in the late medieval period is unknown. There are a number of wills giving a bequest for someone to visit a shrine on their behalf; but mostly, those that were recorded seem to have been those undertaken by royalty and the nobility. For the major shrines at least, it seems to have been 'big business' in all senses of that phrase. In Norfolk, of course, there was one destination above all others that drew many thousands each year: the shrine of Our Lady at Walsingham.
The history and legend of Walsingham has been told, enlarged, discussed and analysed by many, so I won't delve further into that here. Suffice to say that, not long after the shrine's alleged vision-inspired foundation in the 11th (or perhaps 12th) century, the replica of the 'Holy House' in Nazareth (with its statue of the Virgin Mary and a phial of her breast milk) started to become a famed object for faith-based travel that soon rivalled the devotion paid to Thomas Becket at Canterbury. People flocked there from all over Britain and the continent. Between 1226 and 1511, at least eight kings of England made the journey, some of them on multiple occasions (Edward I visited no less than twelve times.)
"So superstitious, so weak and credulous, were the commonalty", scoffed Blomefield, "that they believed (as they were then imposed upon and taught) the Galaxias, or (what is called in the sky) Milky Way, was appointed by Providence to point out the particular place and residence of the Virgin, beyond all other places, and was, on that account, generally in that age, called Walsingham-Way; and I have heard old people of this country so to call and distinguish it some years past".1 A fair amount has been written about the routes used by such pilgrims, along with the supposed wayside shrines and hostels frequented by them. Much of it seems to be conjecture and supposition. The same is true of the roadside crosses. In this survey for example, crosses at Aylmerton, Sharrington (in Brinton parish) and Caston were 'said to be', 'suggested to be' or 'thought to be' on a medieval pilgrimage trail to Walsingham. However, in a few cases in my research crosses seem to have stood upon roads once actually called 'Walsingham Way', so I decided to look into this more closely.
I found 17 stretches of road by that name, as evidenced by the map accompanying this section. This is by no means the totality of what must have existed. Rather than delving into archives, I simply mined online resources and the books and journals I had to hand, so I'm sure this only scratches the surface of the subject. It may be that Robinson and Rose2 were overstating the case when they said that "in Norfolk almost every village had its 'Walsingham Way' or 'Pilgrim Way'", but the name was undoubtedly widespread. For each road I tried to find the earliest reference that I could, and restricted the map to only the lengths of Walsingham Way suggested by the documentation.
Each stretch of Walsingham Way is numbered on the map. Below I examine each one in turn, considering how it fits (if at all) with other routes that allegedly had the famous Norfolk shrine as their destination, as well as the wayside crosses that featured along them. I have only marked on the map those crosses whose existence and exact or probable location are confirmed.
WW1 - Thetford to South Pickenham:
Alan Davison mentions a Walsingham Way leaving the north side of Thetford, as disclosed in a document of the second half of the 14th century, found in the Gough MSS.3 He shows on a conjectural map two possible courses for the road, but its position is made more certain by a 1338 reference to land "inter Walsingham waye et Croxton waye".4 This places it, says Alan Crosby, "west of the Croxton road, which ran along the eastern slope of Gallows Hill".5 Neither source describes its route much beyond Thetford, but its further course is apparent from a newspaper report of 1778.6 This is a notice of the Parliamentary Enclosure commissioners having defined "public roads, and drift-ways for cattle" through the parish of Little Cressingham. One of these was "the road from the parish of South Pickenham by Sturston to Thetford, called Walsingham-way-road."
Its passage through Tottington and Little Cressingham is given in detail, and in the latter parish part of it still exists, now called School Road. Further south, Walter Rye in 1883 records that it went past Sturston Hall (now ruined).7 In fact the track can still be followed today on maps and in aerial photographs at least as far as Frog Hill, after which it passed west of Croxton and so to Thetford. If it kept to the same southerly course, it may have passed the possible 'Shinning Cross', and perhaps came to St. Andrew's Cross, which was a meeting of several roads.
At the northern end, there is an earlier reference to Walsingham Way at Little Cressingham in title deeds of 1717,8 and this is the road now named Pilgrims Way. After crossing Watton Road it becomes Caudle Hill, along which the Great Cressingham/Ashill parish boundary runs. A survey of Ashill dating from the early 16th century (pre-1536) records 'Walsingham wey' here,9 and the survey for the Enclosure commissioners in 1786 confirms that this is the lane now called Caudle Hill.10 I can't find any evidence that it then continued past South Pickenham as what is now Browns Lane - but at some point in the 1½ miles between there and North Pickenham, it almost certainly crossed the river Wissey and joined up with the Walsingham Way that forms WW2.
On a royal pilgrimage to Walsingham in 1447, Henry VI travelled from Bury St. Edmunds to Thetford, then on to Pickenham ('Piknamwade', presumably a ford over the Wissey at either North or South Pickenham), before staying overnight at Litcham. Although there's no record of him using this straight way north from Thetford, it seems possible. Alternatively, he might have taken the road north-west to Mundford, there joining the main pilgrimage route from London to Walsingham.
WW2 - North Pickenham to Toftrees:
On the western edge of North Pickenham, a Roman road branched off from Peddar's Way, heading NNE to the site of a settlement at a junction of Roman routes at Toftrees, just outside Fakenham. On its way it passed by Necton, Sporle and Litcham, and through both Great and Little Dunham. Documented sources make it clear that for most if not all of its course it was once known as Walsingham Way. For the first couple of miles the boundary between Sporle and Necton runs along it, and precisely on the line at Necton were the wayside crosses known as 'Sparkyscros' and 'Goodalescros'. This section is named as Walsingham Way in a letter of 1472 to Sir John Paston.11 The precise route through the Dunhams is not clear, but an 1829 reference tells of Walsingham Way in Little Dunham, and upon it was the 'High Cross'.12 In Litcham parish, land "on Walsingham waye" is noted in the reign of Henry V (1413-22),13 while land abutting on the Way appears in the 1683 will of Matthew Halcott.14 The Way is also named as such at Litcham north of the river Nar on a map of the mid-18th century.15 From Toftrees it was a short journey to Hempton, where pilgrims apparently took the causeway and 'Palmers' Bridge' over the river Wensum, bypassing Fakenham. This would have taken them past the 'Preaching Cross' once at Barsham, and thence straight on into Walsingham.
WW3 - Weeting:
Just north of the village of Weeting, running northwards to the small rise of Mount Ephraim, is a track now known as Pilgrim's Walk. This has been identified with that described in 1695 as "a fine green way, call'd Walsingham-way, being the road for the Pilgrims to the Lady of Walsingham".16 Near its northern end - but actually 400m south-west of it - are the remains of Weeting's Stump Cross. It used to run slightly further southwards, past the church and through the village, but even so it was no more than two miles in length. On Mount Ephraim was a junction of tracks. One carried on NNW towards Cranwich Heath, while another struck off north-eastwards towards Mundford, the continuation of another supposed 'pilgrim path' from Hockwold.
Various 16th century writers - with slight variations - give the main route for pilgrims travelling to Walsingham from London as going via Waltham Abbey, Ware, Babraham, Newmarket, Brandon and Pickenham. This later became known as the 'Palmers' Way' ('palmer' being an old word for a pilgrim who had been to the Holy Land.) Mundford, Ickburgh and Hilborough are also known to have been on this main route, so the 'Walsingham Way' at Weeting is unlikely to have been a part of it. The traveller with any sense would have simply taken the open medieval road through sheep country straight from Brandon to Mundford, with no need to divert westwards at Weeting, then back again to reach Mundford.
WW4 - Ickburgh:
Whilst all of what is now the A1065 between Mundford and Hilborough might have been known as the 'Walsingham Way', I only have evidence of it as it passes through the parish of Ickburgh. Here, a title deed of 1681 describes a plot of land one rood in size that "lies in the West Field and abutts west on Walsingham Way".17
WW5 - West Acre:
In 1744, property in West Acre belonging to William Wabe included "land near Walsingham Way".18 There is no indication as to its location, but Davison and Cushion, working from the late 16th century field books of the parish, show that it was the lane now called Tumbleyhill Road.19 This heads north from the village, then continuing as a track across Massingham Heath, meets the B1145 Lynn to Norwich road just where it is crossed by the Peddar's Way. It passes through an area once called 'Wadmere Field', where the 'Whyght crosse' probably stood. Its location isn't known, so I haven't marked it on the map, but I wouldn't be at all surprised if it was beside the Walsingham Way.
Blomefield mentions a ruined chapel just south-east of the village that was dedicated to St. Thomas Becket, and by which pilgrims passed on their way to the Walsingham shrine.20 On another occasion he states that 'Becket's Chapel' stood "by the pass over the river, where the Pilgrims and other travellers passed by Castleacre, to our Lady at Walsingham".21 Only the overgrown foundations now remain, about 300m south of a ford over the river Nar. Pilgrims could of course have joined the named 'Walsingham Way' from this point, but probably, as Blomefield's quotation suggests, they went rather eastwards to Castle Acre and hence on to Fakenham.
WW6 - Fincham to Marham:
The Fincham 'field book' of 157522 contains a survey in which the parish was divided into four precincts, "formed by the intersection of the two principal roads of the village, the one called 'East-gate' passing through the main street to Swaffham, the other the 'Walsingham Way' towards Marham".23 The northward lane is now called Marham Road, but Walsingham Way left it after about 600m to head north-eastward across the fields. It survives as a footpath which then joins Norwich Road where it becomes Shouldham Road, before entering Marham. If the pilgrimage route did indeed turn south-west to Downham Market, it would have passed by the wayside cross recorded in 1636 standing at a three-ways at the western edge of Fincham village.
WW7 - Gayton to Great Massingham:
I can't pin down a date, but the court rolls for Well Hall manor at Gayton apparently refer to "Regiam viam ducentam erga Walsingham" i.e. "the king's highway leading to Walsingham".24 However, an 18th century map of Gayton parish clearly shows 'Walsingham Way' as a track (now mostly lost) aligned south-west to north-east across the heathland.25 The current Wells Wondy Lane appears to have been part of it, probably extending at least as far as the cross that used to stand beside Lynn Road, and perhaps all the way westward to King's Lynn itself. Eastward it seems to have crossed Peddar's Way at Lynn Lane in Great Massingham parish (not far from the northward end of WW5.)
WW8 - King's Lynn to Flitcham:
The whole road from Lynn to Fakenham (basically now the A148) was known to be a major route for pilgrims. So far, I have only found the 'Walsingham Way' name applied as far as Flitcham. Leaving Lynn's east gate, the traveller would have passed the marble cross on the 'causeway of Mawdelyn', then turned north through Gaywood on what is now Wootton Road. At the meeting with Grimston Road there was (I believe) another cross on the Gaywood/South Wootton boundary. This, I think, was the "stonne lying in Walsingham Way" recorded in 1592/3.26 As the Wootton parish council says, this was the old name for Grimston Road,27 which is borne out by a map of 1588 labelling the road through Gaywood, Wootton, Hillington and Flitcham as 'Walsingham'.28 Another map, probably of the 17th century, shows that Lynn Road through Hillington was still known as 'Walsingham Way' at that time.29 Two of the four crosses at the entrance to Hillington Park appear on that road on the map, and it seems quite plausible that the other two also came from somewhere along the same route. After Hillington and Flitcham, the route is generally thought to have followed the A148 through Harpley, East and West Rudham, and Tattersett. Bryant's 1826 map of Norfolk shows the old road then crossing what is now the airfield at Sculthorpe, to reach Walsingham via the Barsham villages. In the 1960s, the vicar of the Rudhams, Francis Ibbott, said that 'the old people' still called the road covered by the airfield 'The Walsingham Way' - but there seems to be no earlier record of it.
WW9 - Docking to Walsingham:
There was a 'cross of Docking' recorded in 1292, but its location is unknown. From the village a probable medieval lane (known as Kingsway in the late 13th century, part of it now named Barn Road) runs south-eastward to the hamlet of Barwick, just south of Stanhoe. Here it joined with a probable Roman route that still exists as paths and roads, heading ENE to Egmere, after which it loses its straightness and enters Little Walsingham very near to the priory ruins. This was the Walsingham Way in the 14th century, still named Walsingham Road after it passes between North and South Creake.30 Stanhoe had two crosses that were supposedly on a pilgrimage route to Walsingham, but the closest of those was more than half a mile from this road. Barwick Cross was about 200m south of it, on the boundary with South Creake.
WW10 - Letheringsett to Saxlingham:
A glebe terrier (a survey book of church property) of 1615 speaks of "half an acre more lying in the same furlong Walsingham way lying through the north end of the same".31 It apparently refers to the unnamed by-road that leaves the A148 just west of Letheringsett, leading to Saxlingham. After that, as Holt Road, it goes to Field Dalling, where a wayside cross once stood at a three-ways. Here it's only 1¾ miles from Binham, and the start of WW11.
WW11 - Binham to Walsingham:
Although not itself an object of pilgrimage, St. Mary's priory at Binham was undoubtedly visited by pilgrims on their way to Walsingham from places such as Blakeney, Cley and Holt. Binham would also have been passed through by those travelling to Walsingham after praying to the Holy Rood of Bromholm at Bacton. On the green at Binham is its tall 15th century cross, possibly the successor to a market cross erected by the priors three centuries earlier. The village is only 3¼ miles away from Walsingham as the crow flies, and only another half mile by road. That road, according to a 1792 map of the parish, was known then as Walsingham Way.32 It leaves the southern edge of Binham as Walsingham Road then becomes Blakeney Road, although on the 1815 enclosure map it was at that time all Walsingham Road. Turning west, it becomes Hindringham Road as it approaches Great Walsingham. 200m ahead is the rubble core of a wayside cross on Westgate Green.
WW12 - Horning to Belaugh:
In the east of the county, in the Broads, deeds dating from 1698 describe a "capital messuage in Hoveton St. Peter near Cangate Heath and lands and inclosures (described) inc. near Walsingham Way, at the Lathes, Rush Hills and Acrowhurne". This didn't narrow down the location until I found another mention of land that "abutteth upon Walsingham way leading from Horning to Belaugh green".33 Nowadays, it leaves Horning heading north-west as Long Lane, then passes Hoveton's Jacobean church as St. Peter's Lane. After the Five Crossways it becomes Hand Lane, ending abruptly at a junction with Belaugh Green Lane. Whether it ever continued on (in either direction) is uncertain.
WW13 - Blickling to Saxthorpe:
In 1693, the road from Blickling to Saxthorpe was known as Walsingham Way (now Blickling Road, and its continuation the B1354).34 This has earlier confirmation in Saxthorpe, where a property in 1665 adjoined the street "leading from West Mill to Walsingham Way".35 The name may well have applied to the whole road from Aylsham at least as far as Thursford, where a causeway to Walsingham was built around 1500. WW14 is part of this same route.
WW14 - Briston:
Nearly halfway between Saxthorpe and Thursford is Briston, where deeds of property in 1743 included lands such as "the Thorowfare Close and Phenix Hirne near Walsingham Way".36 The name was still current forty years later in 1784, when a farmhouse "standing there against Walsingham Way" was auctioned.37 As the route approached Briston it would have departed from the current course of the B1354, and entered the village by way of Pack Lane.
WW15 - Drayton to Attlebridge:
What was another major route for Walsingham pilgrims is now the A1067 from Norwich to near Fakenham. It's known that King Edward IV travelled this way to the shrine in 1469, completing the journey in one day. He and other pilgrims would have left the city by way of Drayton Road, passing Hellesdon Cross at the junction with Boundary Road. Drayton and Taverham villages are right next to each other along the road, with Drayton Cross standing on the village green beside the highway. In 1803 at Taverham, "Several pieces of glebe land, 33 acres 26 perches, [were] exchanged with Miles Sotherton Branthwayt for 33 acres 26 perches abutting on Walsingham Way to the north".38 And in 1848, this same main road at Drayton was known as having once been called 'Walsingham Way'.39 Next along the road is Attlebridge, only about 2½ miles further north-west. Here, the pilgrims' route would have departed slightly from the modern road, along what is now Old Fakenham Road. In 1775 it was known to have previously had the 'Walsingham' name.40 It passes hard by the church and just into Morton on the Hill parish, then over the river Wensum, beside which there was a hermitage.
WW16 - Bawdeswell:
After passing through Lenwade and Sparham, the A1067 then reaches Bawdeswell. Here also the old road diverges from the new, passing through the village itself. In 1832 a plot of land here was described as "abutting on Walsingham Way to the east, a public road, south, and the boundary of Foxley, east".41 Since Foxley parish is entirely to the north and west of Bawdeswell, that last direction has to be an error for 'west'. If so, the 'Walsingham Way' here has to continue as Foxley Road, which becomes the road to Fakenham and thence to Walsingham. But at this point, some pilgrims may have diverted westwards. Just over a mile west of Foxley Road is Beck Hall, on the site of a hospice for travellers. Tanner tells us that "In the beginning of the reign of king Henry III [early 13th century] one William de Bec founded here, upon the great road from Norwich to Walsingham and Lynne, a chapel and an hospital to the honor of St. Thomas the martyr. Herein were thirteen beds for accommodating poor travellers with lodging every night".42 There's no evidence that it was founded specifically for Walsingham pilgrims, but some might have taken advantage of it, being only about 300m from the Roman road that passes east to west through Bawdeswell and Billingford, to another 'Walsingham Way' at North Elmham.
WW17 - North Elmham:
Walsingham Way used to be the old main street through the village, with part of its original course still surviving as a hollow way running through Elmham Park.43 The earliest record of the name here is from 1417,44 with many other instances found in a 1454 survey of manorial lands.45 It's uncertain how far south along the road (now the B1110) the name was applied, but David Yaxley thinks that the High Cross (formerly on Foxburrow Hill) "was the first of the wayside crosses inside the parish that marked the pilgrimage route from Suffolk and south Norfolk to Walsingham".46 A little to the north of this was an unnamed cross at the meeting of the B1110 and the Roman road from Bawdeswell and Billingford. Further north again, in the angle where the old course of Walsingham Way left the modern High Street was 'Le Stumpitcrosse'. The Way then headed NNW, becoming what is now the road to Great Ryburgh, upon which Yaxley records two further crosses: the Hey Cross and the White Cross.47 At Ryburgh the traveller would have probably crossed the river Wensum to join the road northward from Bawdeswell, skirting the eastern side of Fakenham to reach the shrine.
I've omitted from the map one more 'Walsingham Way' for which I can't pin down a location, but it seems to have been in the Fakenham area. In the manor of Fakenham Lancaster court book for 1613,48 the court leet proceedings find "that Thomas Toll doe over dreep the kinges high wayes called Burnham waye & Walsingham way with his bushes".49 With various pilgrimage routes converging on Fakenham from east, west and south this particular Walsingham Way could be a part of any of them. Or, it could be the final stage of WW2 northward from Hempton, through east Barsham and into Little Walsingham.
In this survey I've recorded 206 confirmed wayside crosses. Of these, the certain or probable locations of 106 are known. Even if this only accounts for, say, 5% of the total that once existed, remarkably few are known along any of the roads once called 'Walsingham Way'. The sample size is admittedly small, but I still would have expected more. It contrasts somewhat with the hyperbole used by Agnes Strickland: "At every town on the Walsingham-Way was erected a cross, which pointed out the approach to that sainted ground".50 In truth crosses were erected for many different reasons - most of which are unknown - but there's no actual evidence that any roadside cross was ever specifically set up to be a marker, guide or stopping-place for prayer on any pilgrim path in Norfolk.
The earliest citations in this county for the name 'Walsingham Way' only occur from the 14th century onwards. In other words, around or after the height of the shrine's fame. It may well be that it simply became fashionable to give that name to roads which headed in that general direction; whether any pilgrims actually trod or rode most of them is open to question. Major routes from King's Lynn, Norwich and Brandon were undoubtedly frequented by the long-distance traveller - especially by royalty - but many of the other ways would have been minor tracks across unpopulated heathland. Perhaps these were used by the more local pilgrim. But as Frank Stenton pointed out, "Except in the far south-west of England, a well-defined medieval road passed within a few miles of every English shrine, and there is neither evidence nor probability that pilgrims preferred the unfrequented track to the highway, with its recognised stages where food could be bought and accommodation secured for the night".51 It seems probable that the name of Walsingham simply became attached - through reverence, fashion or local pride - to otherwise unremarkable paths, and unrelated chapels, hospices, hermitages and crosses simply got absorbed into the mythos.
1. Blomefield & Parkin: 'History of Norfolk' Vol.9 (1808), p.280.
2. Bruce Robinson & Edwin Rose: 'Norfolk Origins 2: Roads & Tracks' (Poppyland Publishing 1983), p.29.
3. Alan Davison in (ed. Carolyn Dallas): 'Excavations in Thetford by B.K. Davison between 1964 & 1970' (East Anglian Archaeology Report 62;
Norfolk Museums Service, 1993), p.207.
4. NRO: MF/RO 173/7
5. Alan Crosby: 'A History of Thetford' (Phillimore & Co, 1986), p.43.
6. The 'Ipswich Journal', April 11th, 1778.
7. Walter Rye (ed.) 'The Norfolk Antiquarian Miscellany' Vol.2, Part 2 (1883), p.620.
8. NRO: HIL 1/187
9. PTR 2/3, 757X8
10. A.W. Reid: 'The Process of Parliamentary Enclosure in Ashill' in 'Norfolk Archaeology' Vol.37, part 2 (1979), p.172.
11. James Gairdner (ed.): ''The Paston Letters' (Chatto & Windus, 1904), Vol.5, p.167.
12. John Chambers: 'A General History of the County of Norfolk' Vol.2 (1829), p.820.
13. G.A. Carthew: 'The Hundred of Launditch and Deanery of Brisley' Part 1 (1877), p.294.
14. G.A. Carthew: 'The Hundred of Launditch and Deanery of Brisley' Part 2 (1878), p.660.
15. NRO: C/Ca 3/8
16. William Camden: 'Brittania, or a Chorographical Description of Britain and Ireland' (ed. Edmund Gibson, 1695), p.402.
17. NRO: PTR 1/109, 756X7
18. NRO: BIR 14, 396X6
19. Alan Davison & Brian Cushion: 'The Archaeology of the Parish of West Acre Part 2' in 'Norfolk Archaeology' Vol.44, part 3 (2004), p.458.
20. Blomefield & Parkin: 'History of Norfolk' Vol.9 (1808), p.164.
21. Blomefield & Parkin: 'History of Norfolk' Vol.6 (1807), p.239.
22. NRO: HARE 845
23. Rev. William Blyth: 'Historical Notices and Records of the village and parish of Fincham' (1863), p.21.
24. William A. Cutting: 'Gleanings about Gayton (Norfolk) in the olden time' (Agas Goose, 1889), p.110.
25. NRO: BL 14/90
26. Nat Arch, Kew: E 134/34and35Eliz/Mich7
27. 'Parish Design Statement for the Village of South Wootton' (parish council, 2007.)
28. NRO: BL 71
29. NRO: NRS 21381
30. Gillian Beckett: 'The Barwicks: One Lost Village or Two?' in 'Norfolk Archaeology' Vol.39, part 1 (1984), p.51-3.
31. NRO: DN/TER 97/2/1-31
32. NRO: MF/RO 402/7
33. NRO: MC 36/200/1-7
34. William Vaughan-Lewis: 'Multiple Long Avenues in Blickling Park: Fact or Fiction?' in 'Garden History' Vol.40, No.2 (2012) p.216.
35. NRO: BRA 723/2/1-12, 727X7
36. NRO: C/C 2/60/1/1-51
37. 'The Norfolk Chronicle or the Norwich Gazette' 30/10/1784.
38. NRO: PD 344/16
39. Daniel Gurney: 'The Record of the House of Gournay' Vol.1, Pt.2 (1848), p.380.
40. Blomefield & Parkin: 'History of Norfolk' Vol.5 (1st edition, 1775), p.1334.
41. NRO EVL 81, 451x7
42. Thomas Tanner: 'Notitia Monastica' (1744), p.358.
43. Peter Wade-Martins: 'Excavations in North Elmham Park 1967-1972' East Anglian Archaeology Report No.9 Vol.1 (Norfolk Museums
Service, 1980), p.26-7.
44. G.A. Carthew: 'The Hundred of Launditch and Deanery of Brisley' Part 1 (1877), p.294.
45. NRO: DCN 52/6
46. David Yaxley: 'The Topography of the Parish in the Late Middle Ages', in 'East Anglian Archaeology' Report No.9, North Elmham Vol.2
(Norfolk Museums Service, 1980), p.522.
47. Yaxley, op cit, p.529-30, 533.
48. NRO: MS 19678
49. H.W. Saunders (ed.): 'The Official Papers of Sir Nathaniel Bacon' (Royal Historical Society, 1915), p.31.
50. Agnes Strickland: 'The Pilgrims of Walsingham' (Saunders & Otley, 1835), Vol.1, p.282.
51. Frank Stenton: 'The Road System of Medieval England') in 'Preparatory to Anglo-Saxon England: The Collected Papers of Frank Merry
Stenton' ed. Doris Mary Stenton (Oxford University Press, 1970), p.247. (Orig. in 'Economic History Review', 1936.)